There is no written evidence which can tell us just who has coined the phrase educational Technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time times have put submitted different descriptions of Educational Technology. Educational Technology is a complex and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where Technology from different fields of science is borrowed per the requirement and element education for implementing, evaluating, and managing answers to those problems involved in all facets of human learning.
Educational Technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five levels.
The first stage of educational Technology is coupled with the use of aids like graphs, maps, symbols, models, examples and concrete materials. The term educational Technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.
The second stage of educational Technology is associated with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Use of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational Technology concept was taken in terms of these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of tutorial materials.
The third stage of educational Technology is associated with the development of media which experts claim led to ‘communication revolution’ for tutorial purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.
The fourth stage of educational Technology is apparent by the personalized process of instruction. The creation of designed learning and designed instruction provided a new dimension to educational Technology. A system of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.
The latest reasoning behind educational Technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, designed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational Technology is a methodical way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the entire process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on research.
Educational Technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age
Educational Technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be tracked back to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; that is the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.
Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by massaging rocks, manufacture of various handmade weapon and items from rocks and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments most important. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger raft ship Technology to migrate from destination for a another across the Sea, by which they developed their first informal education of familiarity with the sea currents, conditions, going practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period), for garden practice, finished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps in mining Technology. The finished axes were so effective that even with appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest and the establishment of harvest farming.
Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to garden settlement. Ancient tools conserved in numerous museums, cavern works of art like Altamira Cavern in The country, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, England etc. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.
Neolithic Wave of Stone Age lead into the appearance of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adopting of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with water piping and later bronze, an alloy of container and water piping, being the materials of their choice.
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The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the information of iron smelting Technology in order to reduce the cost of living since iron items were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written scripts.
Educational Technology throughout Ancient cultures
According to John Saettler, 2004, Educational Technology can be tracked back to the time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and monitor information. In every stage of human the world, one can find an tutorial technique or set of procedures designed to implement a particular culture which are also supported by number of investigations and evidences. The more advanced the culture, the more complex became the Technology of instruction designed to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour designed to run an educated society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.
The greatest advances in Technology and engineering sported the rise of the ancient cultures. These advances stimulated and educated other organizations in the world to take new ways of living and governance.
The Indus Pit The world was a young Bronze Age the world which was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The the world was primarily blossomed around the Indus River container of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River pit and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day The indian subcontinent as well as some the main the world extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran).
There is a long term controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan people mention. It is assumed that their writing was at least seems to be or a pictographic screenplay. The screenplay appears to have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their screenplay with the direction generally from directly to left. Most of the writing was available on elephant seals and sealings which are probably used in trade and official & admin work.
Harappan people had the information of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. These were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.
In a study carried out by P. In. Rao et ing. just last year, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script’s pattern is closer to that of voiced words, which supported the planned theory that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.
According to the Chinese The world, some of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological sensors, bathroom paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed routine, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, gas as fuel, the over unity magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the fun time furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and rifle powdered. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational Technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.
Ancient Silk language was at one point one of the at best making it through and used dialects in the world. Their screenplay was comprised of pictures of the real things like birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was comprised of above 500 hieroglyphs which are known as hieroglyphics. On the stone ancient monuments or tombs which are discovered and rescued latter on provides proof of existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.
Educational Technology during Ancient and Modern Period
Paper and the pulp papermaking process which was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean and beyond by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper generator was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of re-writing wheel increased the productivity of place making process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the re-writing wheel with increasing method of getting cloths, this led to the production of cheap paper, which was a prime aspect in the development of printing Technology.
The creation of the printing press was occurred in approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German developer. The creation of printing press was a prime developmental aspect in bicycles of educational Technology to convey the instruction per the requirement of the complex and advanced- Technology cultured society.
In the pre-industrial stages, while industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the tutorial processes were counted heavily upon simple things like the record, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with a few illustrations. Educational Technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like graphs and pictures.
The year 1873 may manifest as a landmark in the early history of Technology of education or audio-visual education. An exposure occured in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exposure of maps, graphs, textbooks and other equipments.
Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child instructor and the inventor of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic affect educational Technology through her development of ranked materials designed to contribute towards the proper sequencing of subject material for each individual novice. Modern educational Technology suggests many off shoot of Montessori’s idea of prepared child centered environment.
In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of a general purpose processing device laid the inspiration of the modern computer and in 1943, the first processing machine per hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Made it easier for instruction (CAI) in which the computer functions essentially as a coach as well as the Talking Type writer was made by I. Okay. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in schools, universites and colleges.
In the beginning of the 19th century, there were significant changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making sound contribution to formal education. In america, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in Uk were equipped with radios and there were regular daily programmes.
Sidney D. Pressey, a psycho therapist of Tennesse state university developed a self-teaching machine called ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Mentor Skinner, however, in his famous article ‘Science of Learning and art of Teaching’ published in 1945 pleaded for use of the information derived from attitudinal mindsets to class room procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of doing so.
Although the first practical use of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television areas in Berlin, Open enterprise television begun to be taken primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is used for educational purposes.
In 1950, Brynmor, in The united kingdom, used educational technological steps for the first time. It is to be cared that in 1960, as a result of industrial wave in america and Paris, other countries also started accelerating in the filed of educational Technology. In this way, the beginning of educational Technology happened in 1960 from America and Paris and now it has reached The united kingdom, Europe and The indian subcontinent.
In the time around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there was a steep scarcity of teachers in america and therefore an urgent need of educational Technology was felt. Doctor. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his associate, Doctor. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production Technology in america.
Team teaching had its origin in america in the mid of fifties and was initially started in the year 1955 at Harvard University in internship plan.
In the year 1956, Benjamin Flowers from USA introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives through his publication, “The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Guide I: Cognitive Domain”.
In 1961, Tiny teaching technique was initially used by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers at Stanford University in USA.
Consumer electronics is the main Technology being developed in the beginning of 21st century. Broadband Internet access became popular and occupied almost all the key offices and educational places and even in keeping places in developed countries with the main benefit of connecting home computers with music libraries and mobile phones.
Today’s class room is more likely to be a Technology lab, an area with rows of students using internet connected or Wi-Fi allowed laptops, palmtops, notepad, or perhaps students are attending a video conferencing or virtual class room or may have been listening to a podcast or ingesting a video lecture. Rapid technological changes in the field of educational have created new ways to teach and to learn. Technological changes also motivated the teachers to access a variety of information on a global scale via the internet, to enhance their lessons as well as to make them competent professional in their area of concern. At the same time, students can utilize vast resources of the Internet to enrich their learning experience to manage up with changing trend of the society. Execute students as well teachers are attending seminars, meetings, workshops at national and international level with the multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint and even they pursue a variety of important courses of their choice in distance mode via online learning ways. Online learning facility has opened boundless number of doors of opportunities for today’s novice to make their life happier than previously.